The `Global Biodiversity Strategy' signed in 1992 in Rio deJaneiro, and the resolutions at the Ministerial Conferences on theProtection of Forests in Europe in Strasbourg, 1990, and Helsinki,1993, commit the signatory states to monitor nationally the state ofbiodiversity and to sustain the characteristic natural variation inthe country. Sustainability and long-term planning are the two termsbest describing the philosophy of traditional forest managementpractices. However, the traditional planning techniques are notprimarily developed to maintain sustainability of biodiversity. The gap between the international commitments and the practices inforest assessment and management is obvious. This publication presentsexperience in methodology for assessing and monitoring the variationof ecosystems and habitats in relation to biodiversity conservationand for integrating biodiversity in regional planning of forestmanagement and land use. The state of the art in the field of naturalresource assessments with special reference to forest biodiversity isreviewed, progress in integrating data on biodiversity in forestmanagement planning is presented and the information needs regardingbiodiversity conservation and the question to what degree assessmentmethods for forest biodiversity can be simplified for practicalapplications are discussed. The book is intended for researchers and practitioners in the field offorest and environmental planning and environmental policies.